Last name: 
Berman
First Name: 
Steven
Publication year: 
2004
Identity measure title: 
Identity Distress Survey
Identity measure brief description: 
The Identity Distress Survey (IDS; Berman, Montgomery, & Kurtines, 2004) measures distress associated with unresolved identity issues. The survey was modeled on the DSM-III and III-R criteria for Identity Disorder, but can also be used to assess DSM IV criteria for Identity Problem. The survey asks participants to rate on a 5 point scale (Not at all, Mildly, Moderately, Severely, Very Severely) the degree to which they have been recently upset, distressed, or worried over the following identity issues: long-term goals, career choice, friendships, sexual orientation and behavior, religion, values and beliefs, and group loyalties. It also includes an assessment of how long they have been experiencing distress over these issues and to what degree the symptoms are interfering with daily functioning. Internal consistency has been reported as 0.84 with test-retest reliability of 0.82, and the survey has demonstrated convergent validity with other measures of identity development (Berman et al., 2004). Significant associations have also been found between identity distress and both internalizing and externalizing symptoms (Hernandez, Montgomery, & Kurtines, 2006). Also, when looking at identity distress and identity status, it was found that identity distress predicted psychological symptom scores beyond identity status, and identity status accounted for substantially less variance in psychological symptom severity when controlling for identity distress (Berman, Weems, & Petkus, 2008). The measure can be scored as a continuous symptom score measure (average distress ratings across domains listed above) or used to derive a DSM diagnosis (Identity Disorder or Identity Problem). The IDS is useful for identifying youth experiencing significant difficulties in developing an identity and for exploring links between Identity Problems and other areas of psychological functioning.
Administration of measure: 
Paper and pencil, self report, multiple choice
Publications and presentations demonstrating validity and reliability of measure: 

Berman, S. L., Montgomery, M. J. , & Kurtines, W. M. (2004). The development and validation of a measure of identity distress. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 4, 1-8.

Berman, S. L., Weems, C. F., & Petkus, V. (2009). The Prevalence and Incremental Validity of Identity Problem Symptoms in a High School Sample. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 40, 183-195.

Hernandez, L., Montgomery, M. J., & Kurtines, W. M. (2006) Identity distress and adjustment problems in at-risk adolescents. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 6, 27-33.